The beginnings of industry
Noble brothers were the founders of Rybinsk industry. The family of Swedish oil industry workers made their business along the Volga river. In 1912 the so-called oil company “Branobel” bought 2/3 shares of petrochemical plant in Konstantinovo village (nowadays Tutaev district). Large storehouses for kerosine, oil and petrol were built on the banks of the Volga. Emanuel Nobel was the first foreigner who paid attention to Russia. He was poor as a church mouse but he decided to spend all his small savings on construction of triumphal arch for visiting a town Yevl (near Stockholm) by Swedish king. He had a happy marriage. His sons Robert, Ludvig and Alfred were developing oil business. Alfred was the inventor of dynamite and istituted the Nobel Prizes. Also he organized two dynamite trusts.
In 1897 the fixed capital of “Branobel” was more than 32 million rubles.
Rybinsk office of Ivan Velichko also helped to increase the level of capital. It was a good place for their storehouses and also there was a railroad near the river. Ivan made a decision to create a harbour for ship repair and wintering on the Losevsky bank of the river. Later this decision became a serious shipbuilding business.
In 1902 two-storeyed houses were built there and later – ship-raising mechanisms. It was called “Sleep”. It`s still showing for tourists.
From «Russkoe Reno” to “NPO “Saturn”
The summer of 1916. Building of the first plants.The research-and-production assosiation was founded in 1916 as motor-car factory “Russkoe Reno in Rybinsk town.
Building of the factory started according to the contract about the car delivery of February 27, 1916 between the minestry of inner politics and JSC “Russkoe Reno”. This factory was very imortant because of the shortage of cars in Russian army during First World War. There was no motor-car branch in Russian industry at that time. On August 20, 1915 there was created a car-aircraft department and it`s main task was developing of car industry. One year later the government aproved this initiative in the Council of Minister`s special journal of January 29, 1916 about allocating means for the order of automobiles for the needs of military department. On February 21, 1916 Nikolay II confirmed this decision, and according to it there were chosen 5 enterprises to make 7500 cars for the government of the total cost about 136 885 500 rubles.
That`s why they decided to use Rybinsk for lorry assembling.
Dutch firm “Christian and Nilson” got a contract on the building of storehouses of the plant “Russkoe Reno” in Rybinsk. The construction started in May 1916 on the lot, that was situated between the west outskirts of the town and village Ivanovo. This lot had been bought by JSC “Russkoe Reno” from landowner Homutov.
During the projecting of the plant firm took in consideration an convenient geographical location of Rybinsk: cheap water freight, railway communication and the abundance of workers, that were agree to work on the tirms of employer.
1304 people worked on the construction, and there were 918 women among them, but they were paid half as much then men. Also there was working a group of Austrian prisoners of war.
1916. Group of workersThe territory of the plant was enclosed at the end of 1916 and also there were built wooden gates for transport and people. Administration, that consists of director, main engineer, accounts and technical departments, was placed in a new two-storeyed loghouse.Also there were built power and oil stations and four small buildings. Half of the houses had been built by the middle of 1917. The February Revolution didn`t affect the construction, but the October Revolution changed everything. All appropriations were stopped because there was no profit in the plant for the new government. That`s why the future development of the building was impossible, and it was decided to organize car-repair shops for the needs of Red Army. So this is the end of the first period in the history of business.
Rybinsk plant didn`t produce any car, but it influenced a lot on the life of the town. Since that moment machine-building have been developing in Rybinsk, and more town-dwellers have been working on it. So Rybinsk became more famous because of JSC “Russkoe Reno”.
The car factory existed untill 1923. The number of repaired cars was decreasing, and there were no opportunities for a poor post-war country to continue financing of unprofitable production.
The government comission came to the factory in 1923 to prepare it`s production for temporary closing-down. But in May 1924 the factory was reequiped according to decree of Council of People`s Comissars for production of air-engines. It was absolutely new for Russia, because it was always depended on foreign supplies of aviation engines. The factory got a new name: Government aircraft factory # 6.
It is significant that in 1920 there were created very succesful domestic constructions of aircrafts.
According to it country was in need of engines. That`s why the building of Rybinsk aircraft factory was such an important business.
1937. Assembly lineEngine BMW-6 became the firsh licensed engine that was mastered and was serially producing on the factory under cover of M-17. At the beginning there was a lack of experience and specialists. That`s why a group of German aviation specialists was sent on a mission to the factory, and the first engines were made under their direction. Engine M-17 was an important milestone in the development of domestic aircraft engine building. There was no need to buy foreign motors after the beginning of serial production of engine M-17. The facrory produced about 8 000 engines during ten years (from 1928 until 1938). Engine M-17 and it`s modifications were placed on 30 types of civil and war airplanes (especially they were placed on reconnaissance plane of Polykarpov R-5, heavy bombers of Tupolev TB-1, TB-3, fighter R-6, sea reconnaissance plane of Beria MBR-2 and others), and also there were modifications of engines that were placed on tanks (M-17t) and motor torpedo-boats (M-17l).
In 1935 Rybinsk factory mastered a new engine – M-100. It`s prototype was a french engine 12Ybrs of “Ispano-Syiza” firm. The name of a remarkable soviet scientist Vladimir Yakovlevich Klimov is connected with the development of M-100 and the creation of new modifications on it`s basis. In 1935 he was at the head of design offices of the factory ¹26. The engines M-100, M-103 and M-105 were modified and serially produced befor the war under his direction.
In December, 1936 the factory was rewarded with the Order of Lenin for execution of the government task of creating an engine M-100. Such engines were placed on fighters and reconnaissance planes “Stal” and on transport planes.
In 1940 the group of constructors under the direction of V. A. Klimov elaborated a new engine for a perspective fighter of A. S. Yakovlev Yak-1-M-105 and it`s modifications: gun-type M-105P and M-105PF. Klimov`s engines were placed on the planes of Yakovlev, Pelyakov, Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov and other planes of legendary soviet constructors. The factory became an undisputed leader of russian aviation engine building.
The output of engines for fighting planes increased in the early forties. The factory ¹ 26 was the first enterpise that had a daily tapping schedule of finished commodity in 1940. By the beginning of 1941 the factory produced 12-17 engines a day, but in May-June 1941 the quantity of finished engines was about 45 units a day! It`s notable that during the war german planes didn`t bomb Rybinsk. But sometimes they threw down leaflets with the words like: “We are not going to bomb the town and you also don`t destroy anything. We`ll come soon”. It shows how the command of Wehrmacht valued the potential of enterprise.
The output of engines M-105 and production of first new motor M-107, constructed by V. A. Klimov, was increased, but during the war functioning of the factory was reduced and at the end of 1941 it was partly evacuated to Ufa. During the second period of the factory`s history town grew as a whole. Specialists of aircraft industry recognized that Rybinsk aviation factory became the best enterprise of precision engineering in Europe. During that time standard of culture in town increased and there was built club-house “Aviator”, was opened aviation institute, an started the construction of housing estate.
In February, 1942 aircraft production in Rybinsk was resumed by the order of State Defense Committee. A group of specialists and highly qualified workers came back from Ufa. The former main technologist of evacuated factory Serafim Maksimovich Sova was appointed commander of the new factory ¹ 36. The stuff was widened due to specialists from Perm and ex-servicemen. A lot of young people came to the factory because of the Komslomol levy and practically all of them were taught straight in workshops.
In 1943 OKB-250 removed from Ufa to Rybinsk, and here it got a task to create new aircraft engine. The design office needed to use productive capacity of Rybinsk factory to solve this problem. Since that time factory and design office have been always working together. At the end of 1944 factory mastered a serial output of engines ASH-62IR, designed by Arkady Dmitrievich Shvetsov. This engine was placed on transport planes Li-2, PS-35, PS-43, fighters I-152, I-153 (“Chaika”) and a bit later – An-2. It was produced on the factories of China, Poland after 1952 and it is still used in aviation.
After the war factory mastered serial output of star-shaped engine Ash-73TK, constructed by A. D. Shvecov. It was more powerful engine than Ash-62IR and it was produced utill 1957. These engines with two turbine compressors were placed on fighter Tu-4, and engines Ash-73 without compressor – on the Beriev boatplane Be-6.
In February 1951 engine M-253K succesfully passed the tests (in summer of the same year it got a new name VD-4K), and on the 1st of May plane Tu-85, equiped with 4 engines VD-4K, flew over the Red Square in Moscow, and opened a military parade. Bomber Tu-85 was the last plane in the series of domestic piston aviation. Theoretically, it was the most powerful combined engine (4300 hp) at that time. But the period of piston aviation was finished and also stopped the development of engine and plane.
1955. Conferense of factory chiefs.In the late fifties on the Rybinsk factory was started a serial production of turbo-jet engine VD-7B, constructed by V. A. Dobrinin, that was designed for strategic bomber 3M of V. M. Masishev. In sixties this bomber was a basis of soviet aviation. In September, 1959 there were made some world records on the plane 3M.
Ten years later, in 1960 design office created a new engine VD-7M, that intended for supersonic heavy bomber M-50. This plane opened fly-past over the Tushino aerodrome in June, 1960.
In the same year Rybinsk factory got a task to begin a serial production of turbo-jet engine AL-7F-1, constructed by Arkhip Mikhailovich Lyulka. The factory serially produced this engine for about 14 years. It was placed on bombers Su-7B and fighters Su-9, Su-17, that were developed by design office of P. O. Sukhoi.
In 1961 Petr Alekseevich Kolesov became the head of OKB-36 when V. A. Dobrinin retired on a pension. Design office elaborated engines RD36-51A for supersonic passenger plane Tu-144D, RD-36-41 for supersonic bomber T-4 (so-called “sotka”) and engine RD36-51V for super-high altitude plane M-17 of Myasishev firm. This plane was also called “Stratosfera”. It was created to fight with extemporaneous reconnaissance aircrafts – for example, sphere-probe on a very altitude. Twenty five world records were established on M-17. Later this plane was used for
Investigation of upper atmosphere.
Most specialists said that famous T-4 “Sotka” advanced it`s time for about 20 years. But this plane wasn`t produced serially because rockets were more important for the government at that moment.
Design office under the direction of P. A. Kolesov also created several light but powerful lifting motors for seaborne fighters of Yakovlev`s and Mikoyan`s firms. The cheif designer P. A. Kolesov was the first who solved the problem of vertical take-off and vertical landing of a plane.
After the war Rybinsk factory produced engines not only for military aviation. Serial engines D-30KU and D-30Kp, created by design office of Pavel Aleksandrovich Solovyov, for the planes Il-62M and Il-76 have been the main part of civil market segment of NPO “Saturn” since the early seventies, the same as engine D-30KU-154 for a passenger plane Tu-154M - since the early eighties.
In the middle of sixties enterprise became a creative laboratory for exchange of operational experience in a sphere of industrial engineering. Executive director of the factory P. F. Derunov became the main inspirer of this movement. That`s why there were built football stadium, swimming pool, place for water-skis, sports complex “Polet”, two million square meters for dwelling and an aeroclub.
In the middle of nineties enterprise headed for a integration of design and industrial forces of this branch, and later it allowed to create a production of unique gas turbine technics, to make a modernization of industry, to fill it`s own place in the market, and finally, to become a leader of domestic engineering.